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A Study of CSR Practices for Furniture Company

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A Study of CSR Practices for Furniture Company in Myanmar

Executive Summary

Though Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is definitely not a new topic, it seems in the last few years that CSR came into focus of many corporations and organizations. It spread out in the complex global business environment with a great urgency. In CSR is linked to profit creation and image building of the corporation. However, the social and environmental aspect of CSR needed to be well further recognized in order to create sustainable development while ensuring long term profits.

In developed countries, the CSR concepts have already matured and incorporated in to the business operation activities. In developing countries, the CSR concept is developing fast driving by the need of poverty alleviation and climate change. The economic aspect is well addressed. In terms of social aspect, the understanding of CSR is still low. Many organization and individuals think that it is mainly linked to charities, failing to understand the need of corporation to be a good social citizen and contributing to the society. As for the environmental aspect of CSR practice, many operations of the business corporations are not acted in accordance with CSR initiatives to minimize the environmental pollution.

This research thesis discussed and evaluated the CSR practice of K. K. A in Myanmar, for CSR. The research rationale of this thesis combines inductive theoretical research and practical explorative research together in order to discuss the concept and importance of CSR in developing countries

Table of content

Chapter 1. Introduction 4

1.1 Research Context 4

1.2 Research Rationale 5

1.3 Research Aims & Objectives 5

1.4 Research Overview 5

2. Literature Review 6

2.1 Journal Review 6

2.1.1 Key Concepts in the Studying Literature 6

2.1.2 Methodology 8

2.1.3 Ethic Issues Identified 8

2.1.4 Limitations of the studying paper 8

2.2 Literature Review of Related Concepts 9

2.2.1 Concept of CSR 9

2.2.2 Importance of CSR to Corporations 10

2.2.3. Challenges of CSR in Developing Countries 12

2.2.4 Efforts Needed to Enhance CSR in Developing Countries 12

2.2.5 Crisis and Challenge to CSR in Developing Countries 13

2.2.6. CRS and Sustainable Development 14

2.2.7. CRS and Accountability 16

3. Research methodology 18

3.1 Research Methodology of Other Literature 18

3.2 Research Methodology of This Paper 19

3.3 Research Design 20

3.3.1 Quantitative Research Method 20

3.3.2 Qualitative Research Method 21

3.4 Data Collection Tools 21

3.4.2 Questionnaire survey 22

3.4.3 Observation 23

3.5 Data Analysis Tools 23

3.6 Research site 24

3.7 Sampling method, unit & size 24

3.8 Limitations 25

4. Research Analysis and Results 25

4.1 Research Result 25

4.1.1 Interview Result 25

4.1.2 Questionnaire Result 26

4.2 Research Analysis 27

4.2.1 Interview Analysis 27

4.2.2 Questionnaire Analysis 28

5. Conclusion 29

5.1 Theoretical Findings 29

5.2 Practical Findings 30

Reference 33

Books: 33

Journals 34

Websites: 37

Appendixes 38

Appendix 1. Interview Questions of the stakeholders 38

Appendix 2: Interview Results of the Stakeholders 40

Appendix 3 Questionnaire survey 42

Appendix 4 Questionnaire reasoning 43

Appendix 5 Questionnaire Results 44

Chapter 1. Introduction

1.1 Research Context

Within the development of present global business, the main responsibility of corporations has historically changed from making profits and increasing shareholder values to maintaining corporation social responsibility. In other words, corporate financial responsibility is no longer the sole driving force of development. This new driving force, corporate social responsibility, includes holding accountability for the environment, for local communities, for working conditions, and even for business ethical practices. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) was always described as the corporate “triple bottom line”– the corporation’s financial, social, and environmental performance in conducting business activities (Elkington, 1999). In developing countries, pursuing rapid economic development has led to a series of social and environmental challenges and crisis, which must be addressed to avoid economic sustainability problems in the future. As a result, the role of CSR in business strategy is increasingly recognized by more corporate and organizations in modern economic development.

Other research materials show that the development of CSR in developing countries is still at an early stage compared with that of the developed countries. The findings show that CSR attitude and awareness in developing countries is not enough while the CSR process of developed nations is integrated into the business operations. CSR initiatives create profits to corporations give it a competitive situation and advantage over competitors. Therefore, the process of profits creation by the corporations through CSR will encourage other corporations in the developing nations to adopt a comprehensive approach towards CSR and achieve the competitive advantages. Although the economic aspect of the CSR issue is addressed, the social responsibility and economic responsibility is not well recognized by the corporations to create the added value compared to the economic aspect.

Longhua is a furniture industry in Burma, Myanmar. Over the years, the furniture corporation is developing fast generating great profits. Confronted by the challenges of climate change, natural and disasters, the importance of CSR is increasingly recognized by the corporation to generate profits and create added value. The research of CSR will be based on the corporation Longhua. 

1.2 Research Rationale

The research rationale of this thesis combines inductive theoretical research and practical explorative research together. On one aspect, the theories concerning the CSR, stakeholders, sustainable development, corporate image building, corporate accountability and profits creation approaches can be used to investigate the CSR situation and importance, sustainability, economic growth and CSR implications in the developing nations; on the other aspect, this paper will conduct the personal interviews, telephone and email interviews, online survey, questionnaires, and collecting data regarding to CSR issues, awareness and attitudes among the corporate, the public and business stakeholders in developing nations, particularly with regard to Longhua in Burma’ (Myanmar) furniture industry. 

1.3 Research Aims & Objectives 

The objective of this paper is to analyze the concept and importance of CSR in developing countries such as Myanmar, with a focus on CSR practices taken by K. K. A. in Myanmar and to see how CSR can help K. K. A build corporate image as well as create value for itself and even the society. This paper aims to discuss the following questions: Firstly, when the corporate in developing countries try to enhance their CSR performance and strategies, what are some of the business policies and strategies facing them? Secondly, how can CSR practices improve the corporate image of these corporate in developing countries? Thirdly, what’s the relationship between profit creating and sustainable development to the corporate in developing countries? These questions will be addressed to the study of CSR practices in developing countries, especially with the case of K. K. A. in Myanmar.  

1.4 Research Overview

The research falls into several parts. The first part will be divided into to parts, the literature review of other journals and the literature review of related concepts of CSR. The first part will discuss the methodology used in conducting the research. Finally, the research findings and analysis will be presented in order to conclude the research thesis. 

2. Literature Review

In order to fully understand the background information for conducting this research, the literature review will be divided into to parts. The first part will talk about the journal “Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as a tool for Value Creation; A Study of Nestle Pakistan” (Ahsen & Bilal, 2010). The second part will be linked to the related concepts of CSR.

2.1 Journal Review

The literature selected for the thesis research is “Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as a tool for Value Creation; A Study of Nestle Pakistan” (Ahsen & Bilal, 2010), from the academic journals of Lund University. There are two reasons to choose this literature for reference: First, this literature focus on the study on CSR in developing countries, especially Nestle in Pakistan, which is similar to our research thesis; on the other hand, the theories and rationale in this literature can be adopted to the research of CSR process in developing countries.

The purpose of the studying literature is to discuss and analyze the concept and dynamics of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in developing countries such as Pakistan, with a unique focus on the CSR performance of Multinational Companies like Nestle to understand the stakeholders’ perceptions of CSR, and to explore how CSR polices can help corporate like Nestle create value and corporate image for itself as well as the society from perspectives of various stakeholders. 

2.1.1 Key Concepts in the Studying Literature

CSR concerned with Corporate Ethics and Identity

In this literature, the author argues that a corporate pyramid of CSR process starts from the responsibility of the economy, and continues with discretionary responsibilities of legal, ethical, and social according to the theories of Archie Carroll (1991). With the development of globalization and ever changing environment, CSR model is becoming more and more valuable to evaluate the business success and corporate ethically responsibilities (Holmes, 1976). As a result, the business ethical behavior is the mirror of corporate image. The business ethics and corporate identity are a part of CSR concepts.

CSR as a tool of value and corporate image creation

In the literature, the author takes Nestle Pakistan as an example, arguing that the CSR initiatives and awareness can help corporate to establish a strong corporate and public image, which enables the good relationship with stakeholders and society. It can enhance the competence and value creation to the corporate and its stakeholders as well as the nation in the local and global market (Kok et al., 2001). The author believes that CSR as a tool of value and corporate image creation can create mutual benefits and common values to corporate itself, its stakeholders and the society. Besides, CSR process will ensure better productivity and image recognition of corporate during the business activities. 

CSR in developing countries and in Pakistan

On this subject, the author states that CSR process and awareness of corporate in developing countries are at an early stage. More efforts should be done to develop CSR initiative and polices in developing countries. The perceptions of CSR in developing countries are more concerned with charities, ethics, tradition and culture than business operation activities (Davis, 1960). As it in most of the developing countries like Pakistan, CSR is always a new concept to the public and corporate. Developing countries like Pakistan did not realize the importance and necessary of CSR in value creation, imaging building, environment protection and social development. 

CSR Awareness of Stakeholders

In the research of this literature, the author illustrates the perceptions of CSR among various stakeholders, which including customers, suppliers, shareholders and employees. The author argues that the CSR awareness of stakeholders and corporate are very essential to the CSR process (Walton, 1967). Within CSR policies, the good relationship between corporate and stakeholders are particularly important to establish good corporate image and create value to both corporate and all its stakeholders. 

2.1.2 Methodology

In the literature, the author adopts theoretical approaches and explosive research approaches to illustrate the concept and process of CSR in developing countries. Special techniques like telephone interview, questionnaires and surveys as well as a special case of Nestle Pakistan are adopted. In our research paper, similar methodology could be adopted. 

2.1.3 Ethic Issues Identified

In the studying literature, the author identified several ethic issues during the process of CSR research. In developing countries, the concepts and perceptions of CSR is still at an early stage that it is not widely spread and recognized among the public and corporate (Friedman, 1960). The perceptions of CSR in developing countries are more concerned with and effected by culture, charities, and traditions, which are not adopted into the business operation activities adequately (McGuire, 1963). 

2.1.4 Limitations of the studying paper

During the process of studying this literature, some researches limitations and problems can be found obviously. First of all,  this paper mainly focus on CSR the sustainable and mutual development of corporate, society and environment, but not about value creation and imaging building of corporate(Martin, R., 2002). Second, this literature aims to the importance of CSR process to the value creation of Nestle Pakistan, but ignored the relationship between the development of corporate and society. Finally, the explosive approaches of the literature also have a limitation. The telephone interview and questionnaire survey are too monotonous, failing to get to a large scale of research respondents. A full range of research means such as personal interviews, telephone and email interviews, online survey and questionnaires should be taken and combined during the research procedures.

2.2 Literature Review of Related Concepts

2.2.1 Concept of CSR

At present, there is no universally accepted definition of CSR, which is a fundamental problem in the field of CSR research. CSR is a broad and evolving concept, and there are a lot of definitions and opinions on the subject. In order to understand the concept of CSR, the study of the literature will discuss several definitions to present a perceived version of what CSR entails

Bazin and Ballet (2004), offered one of the earliest definitions of CSR, which described as the “corporate obligations to pursue the policies to make decisions or to follow the direction of actions that are desirable in terms of the purpose and values of the corporations and society”. Since then, the field of CSR study has evolved different terms such as corporate social accountability and corporate social performance. This evolvement also reflects an increasing awareness of importance and performance of CSR in business activities (Carroll, 1991).

According to the theory of Sims, CSR was defined as the continuing commitment of corporations to behave ethically and contribute to economic development as well as improving the quality of life for the public and society. Another major opinion of Sims is that there is an expectation to corporations to be a good corporate citizen, and they also need to fulfill the needs of voluntary charities, which is known as discretionary responsibility. Besides, corporations need to contribute financial and environmental development to the society. In his study, the main factor emphasized including society giving, community interaction through charities projects, such as building charity infrastructures, supporting the homeless and funding the victims struck by disasters (Sims, 2003).

According the understanding of William C. Fredrick (1960), CSR was described as the corporate should supervise and manage the business activities of an economic system in order to fulfill the requirements and expectations of the public and society. It means in turn that the economic means of business operation should be employed in a way of enhancing and improving the social-economic welfare. Corporate Social Responsibility analysis implies a public attitude toward society’s economy and resources as well as a willingness to see these resources are used for an extensive social purpose but not simply for narrowly circumscribed benefits of individuals or single groups of corporate .

After going through several concepts of CSR, it is conceived that CSR is a process of adjusting the social responsibility policies and values to the corporate business operations, and meeting the expectations of the various stakeholders. CSR is not only about being a good corporate citizen but to also have a sense of common development to maintain competitive advantages in conducting business activities. Combining the CSR strategies with the corporate business operations will allow corporate not only be socially responsible but also competitive in the global market. Therefore, the study of the literature focuses on the importance of CSR to the corporate in developing countries, and there could be many factors playing an essential role in achieving CSR purpose. 

2.2.2 Importance of CSR to Corporations 

From the above concepts of CSR, it is easily to see that CSR is not new phenomena, and it exists for a long time. Many researchers argued for the process of CSR, and many refuted that CSR strategies are just for a social cause and being done by the corporate for the development of the society from the aspects of financial, legal, environmental and political. CSR is not a mere strategy adopted by the corporate to build corporate image and create profits. CSR is a process of creating awareness among the broad stakeholders, which perceived to be a noble activity taken by corporate. The world business is turning into a broad market, and the ever changing business environment requires corporate to undertake CSR both from the perspective of creating value and developing social benefits (Salzmann et al., 2005). The corporate in production and operation activities need not only to create values by saving cost but also have a sense of responsibility to the environment, stakeholders and even the society. It is argued that when corporate conduct production, operation and marketing activities, they need to put a lot of focus on satisfying the needs of various stakeholders including customers, suppliers and shareholders as well as the requirements of environment and society.

Ullmann (1985). argues that, CSR is not new issue and exists for a long time  CSR evolved from being a simple phenomenon with corporations and business activities into a philosophy of corporate ethics and citizenship, from which it can be assessed that social responsibility issues undertaken by corporate is by no means a new phenomenon. As the requirements of social and environmental responsibility are increasing for the ever growing influence of globalization, CSR is playing an influential role in the development of corporate and society. In this respect, Martin (2002) states that globalization has strengthened the society’s anxiety over conducting multinationals business activities. Levy states that many organizations would adopt CSR if consumers and stakeholders would reward corporate for supporting their social programs. In other further research by McGuire (1988), confirm that corporations need to satisfy the benefits of not only corporate shareholders but also the other stakeholders. It primarily argues that business ethics and profits making of organizations and corporate can be combined, and one can be separated from the other.

Another major study that emphasized the growing impact of CSR and its influence is conducted by (Bowen, 1953), which argues that consumer concerns more of society giving and increasing society interaction. Corporate in their process of production and operation activities need to not only pay attention towards profits making but also focus on the concerns of other stakeholders primarily. It can also be gauged that while business activities of corporate in generally directed towards the process of marketing, influencing and persuading the consumers’ attitude of products purchasing, the corporate feel that it is necessary to serve and satisfy the internal and external publics needs of their customers (Kotler, 1969), which in order to achieve rewards from consumers and the purpose of obligated to the society.

2.2.3. Challenges of CSR in Developing Countries 

CSR concept originated from western liberal democracies, which at present has evolved into a global choice conducted by multiple players such as corporate, governments, NGOs, and even the public. Corporate and the public pay more attention to the importance of CSR in the globalization environment and the CSR academic and management literature are proliferating rapidly (Perrini F., 2005). CSR in developing countries undertaken by individual, government, organizations and corporations is facing a great challenge. In order to maintain sustainable development of the corporate and the society, hard efforts are needed in all fields of social and environmental factors. The concept of CSR aims both to evaluate the role of business activities in society, and to maximize the positive social outcomes of economic activities (UN, 2006).

2.2.4 Efforts Needed to Enhance CSR in Developing Countries 

Developing countries need a fabulous effort in the field of CSR development. The  reasons for focusing on CSR in developing countries distinguished from CSR in the developed world can be analyzed as the following three parts: the developing countries are the representation of the most rapidly increasing economies and the most beneficial growth markets for business activities (IMF, 2006); developing countries present a particular set of collective CSR challenges which are quite different from those faced in the developed countries; besides, in developing countries, both positive and negative social and environmental impacts of globalization, economic growth, investment, and business activities are likely to be the most dramatically.

Most CSR in developing countries is either developed generally in terms of developing countries or related to a particular country or region. Even though, only about one fifth of the developing countries put the focus on conducting CSR for financial constraints. Evaluation of CSR at regional level are particularly common, but study on corporate, organizations and individual are truly low. Developing countries need to put a lot of focus on the issues of CSR development. In the recent years, through direct engagements, governments, NGO’s and corporate of developing countries have quickened the steps of adopting the CSR agenda of developed countries (UN, 2006). Furniture corporations like Longhua in Burma are working hard to improve the social and economic welfare of the corporate and the society. With a global perspective, Longhua has a vast willingness to execute CSR projects. They not only work towards the environment of the country but taking account the current needs of the society, which focus on the social and public infrastructure projects. While it is believed that CSR is an invention of western developed countries, but there are enough evidences that CSR is driven by the cultural charities and corporate business ethics in developing countries. CSR in developing cannot be separated from political and social reforms which often direct the corporate business behavior towards coordinating social and ethical issues. De Oliveira (2006) argues that the changes of political and social reforms in developing countries have shifted the corporate business attitudes to be more socially responsible to the social and environmental issues. The case in Asian countries, especially Burma is a good example; the political and social changes of democracy have brought a trend of good corporate performance and a collective effort towards social development, which positively affected the CSR and corporate management practices in the developing countries.

2.2.5 Crisis and Challenge to CSR in Developing Countries 

Many crises in the developing countries are also responsible for emerging and effecting CSR initiatives. These crises include economic, social, environmental, political and industrial. In developing countries like Burma and India, poverty alleviation is a basic topic among the corporate to develop the CSR strategies, for they think poverty alleviation is the solution to the problems. Other challenges that have prompted and affected CSR initiatives include diseases and climate change. Besides, immediate and long-term effects of catastrophic events are more likely to elicit charities activities of CSR responses. The Asian tsunami and earthquake are typical examples of this.

In developing countries, another critical driver force for the CSR is that, the political, social, economic, ethical and environmental issues conducted by stakeholders groups is lack of appropriate governmental control (Lund Thompson, 2004). In developing countries, the four main stakeholders groups, which including development agencies, trade unions international NGOs and business associations (Jenkins, 2005), are not well developed or adequately to provide strong support for CSR development. Another stakeholder is the media, which plays an essential role in the CSR development in developing countries (Vivarta and Canela, 2006). The media help to highlight CSR issues, which are not advocated by the government, in order to help organizations and corporate to put their focus on these CSR issues.

2.2.6. CRS and Sustainable Development 

2.2.6.1 The Concept of Sustainable Development

Sustainable development was defined as an ethical concept by the World Commission on Environment and Development that it is a development which can meet the needs of the present, at the same time do not harm to the ability of future generations to meet the needs of development (Barry, 2002). The sustainable development contains two key concepts: the first concept is “needs”, particularly the essential needs of the society, to which critical priority should be given to maintain the environments and resources ability to meet the needs of both present and future. The other concept is “sustainable”, which requires the goals of economic and social development oriented must be defined in terms of sustainability in all developed or developing countries to enable a common future (Tatyana, 2004). Elkington argues that corporate should not only focus on maximizing profits and value but focus more on environmental and social development (Elkington, 1998). Therefore, sustainable development is defined as a model of triple-bottom-line as well as CSR.

2.2.6.2 Link between CSR and Sustainable Development

Some organizations such as the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) and Commission of European Communities took part in the discussion of the relationship between CSR and sustainable development. WBCSD argues that CSR is the evaluation principle of the social progress, which supports corporate to complete their obligations as a good corporate citizen. It defines CSR as continuing commitment of corporations to behave ethically and contribute to economic development as well as improving the quality of life as well as of the community and society (WBCSD, 2006). On the other aspect, the Commission of European Communities regard CSR as a concept that corporate adopt social and environmental requirements into their business activities and operations in order to realize common development.

On one aspect, sustainable development is regarded as the ethical basis for CSR, which represents a broad benefits basis for the triple-bottom-line of the economic, environmental and social dimensions. As to Debbie Thorne McAlister (2010), CSR is a concept for corporate and organizations, which argues that CSR as a corporate sustainable direction, it aims to meet the needs of the stakeholders, society and the environment (Barry, 2002) argues that corporate sustainability is a synonym to sustainable development although there is a small but essential distinction. Corporate sustainability is related to the broad principle of development, which means to focus on profits making, environmental protection, environmental friendly business activities and so forth. However, CSR is associated with the relationship between corporate and society. To his argument, three concepts of corporate sustainability and CSR are described. The first, the corporate societal obligation is more likely to delimit CSR as sustainable development; second, CSR was defined as social evaluation tools of sustainable development while sustainable development is the basis for CSR development; third, CSR is deriving from a model of sustainable development, which means on a corporate level, CSR is sustainable development. For the above advocates, it is easy to see that CSR and sustainable development have a strong relationship with each other while with high interdependence.

On the other aspect, the term sustainable development and CSR can be used synonymously. More and more companies define their social and environmental obligations as CSR. However, corporate focus more on social commitment than on achievements and program on sustainability issues, which including environmental and social concerns (Baughn, 2007). Barry (2002) defined CSR as a synonym of corporate sustainability and sustainable development, and state that stakeholder management is nowadays seen as social responsibility of corporate. Other researchers did not state that sustainable development and CSR are synonyms but argued that CSR as a triple-bottom line that commonly seen with sustainable development (Carroll, 1979), it is a concept that the corporate need to behave profitably according to the social and environmental needs (Welford, 2004) argues that ethical values alongside with legal requirements should have to be considered as well of the corporate business activities. He also describes sustainable development as a synonym for CSR, in which the responsibility of corporate includes welfare of employees, social commitment, business ethics and environment needs (Jenkins, 2004) argues that CSR is a concept that makes it possible for corporate to form a collective attitudes and strategies and  deal with the relationships with broad stakeholders during the business activities, which means that the corporate have to undertake an appropriate business behavior according to their environmental and social commitments (Waddock, 2002) also state that CSR is more than the legal and economic obligations of corporate, but a set of responsibilities which concerns social, political, environmental and legal responsibilities during the business activities.

From the study of various literature on the relationship between CSR and sustainable development, it can be analyzed that the definition and initiatives of CSR and sustainable development are similar, such as both of the subjects aims to pursue social and environmental development in the business activities of corporate, which in this fact that CSR can be seen as the same as sustainable development. 

2.2.7. CRS and Accountability

2.2.7.1 The Concept of Responsibility

A definition of accountability provided by Schedler argues, “A is accountable to B when A has the obligation of informing B about A’s (past or future) actions and decisions in order to justify them, and to take the consequence and suffer punishment in the case of eventual misconduct” (Schedler, 1999). Accountability means that the individuals, governments, organizations and corporate are held to account for their behaviors and activities. The corporations should establish more accountable and transparent procedures and behaviors in order to maintain public trust and the corporate image. Accountability provides public agencies and office holders with feedback based on motivations of increasing their effectiveness and efficacy (Patricia and Rudolf, 1987). 

2.2.7.2 Linkages between CSR and Accountability

Accountability is a process undertaken by a leader, corporate, or organization, which in order to seeks approaches of ensuring and maintaining the integrity and image of the corporate. In an abroad stakeholder society, accountability is one of the biggest challenges of corporate and organizations. The strategic manager and director are responsible for concerning with coordinating and fulfilling the requirements, profits, and values of a wide range of stakeholders including employees, customers, suppliers, communities, shareholders, organizations, corporate, environment, and even the society. The evaluation of corporate activities in terms of CSR accounting will be effective when appropriate CSR measures are conducted in its internal management as well as its external marketing activities. Furthermore, the literature reflects that the need for publicity of good practice in CSR accountability is increasing and a need for more pressure to be adopted on corporate to certify them as business ethical, accountable, trustworthy (Kok et al., 2001). A relevant point raised in some literature has to do with the effectiveness of CSR strategies undertaken by corporate to demand corporate accountability (Mark, 2007). This literature argues that the success of social-based strategies for corporate accountability is conditional upon the right integration of the public, corporate, social, and environmental development.

Both concepts of CSR and corporate accountability are the consideration of social and environmental sustainability, which accountable to its broader stakeholders including shareholders, employees, customers, the environment as well as a nation and the society. The main focus is laid on the improvement of its economic, social and environmental performance and effects. O’Connell (2005) makes the point that accountability is more than making false promises. CSR requires accountability by all stakeholders in the business activities, which including strategic managers and directors, individuals, organizations, corporate, customers, and other members, and yet the concept of accountability is broader and more complex than CSR. CSR means that the behaviors and actions of corporate should confirm the requirements and needs from both corporate and the society. It focuses on the responsibility of corporate to accelerate the development of corporate as well as the society and environment (European Commission, 2011). While, corporate accountability focuses more on taking the consequence of business activities and conforming to the business ethics and laws. While the essence of accountability and CSR is similar that both the subjects require the corporate to be responsible for the benefits and development from the perspectives of economic, social and environmental aspects, which in order to realize the purpose of sustainability and common development progress of corporate, society as well as the nations. As a broad principle of sustainable development, CSR requires the corporate to adopt active and effective procedures in the business activities that accountable to the consequence and the common benefits of broad stakeholders. Within the ever changing business environment as well as the rapidly growing globalization, the public concerns more about the effects on society brought by corporate business activities. Nowadays, corporate social responsibility (CSR) and accountability become the role of a corporate while conducting a business and marketing activity, which aims to bring positive and beneficial effects to the broad stakeholders. From this aspect, corporate accountability can be described as the same as a kind of corporate social accountability from a broad perspective of stakeholders. 

3. Research methodology 

3.1 Research Methodology of Other Literature 

There are various opinions and research methodology toward CSR study. In “Measuring Corporate Social Responsibility Towards Employees” (Anna & Zuzana, 2012), the author presents a new methodology to evaluate CSR level through an integrative model of CSR. First, the author discussed the CSR basis, which includes basis of legal, economic and ethical responsibility, from the perspective of employees. On the other aspect, the author took an empirical research on a large multinational company through questionnaire. Compared with other literature, the research methodology of this paper is more comprehensive and effective. Second, the author adopted a series of theories concerning with CSR theories, stakeholder’s theories and value creation theories. In addition, the author conducted telephone interviews of various stakeholders, such as employees, shareholders and suppliers of the corporate. Besides, the author also conducted a questionnaire survey to explore the CSR perceptions and thoughts of various stakeholders.

3.2 Research Methodology of This Paper 

In this paper, inductive theoretical approaches and exploratory research approaches are combined to illustrate the concept and process of CSR in developing countries such as Myanmar.  As for the theoretical approaches, the theories concerning the CSR, stakeholders, sustainable development, corporate image building, corporate accountability and profits creation approaches can be used to investigate the CSR situation and importance, sustainability, economic growth and CSR implications in the developing nations. Concerning the exploratory approaches, this paper will conduct the personal interviews, telephone and email interviews, online survey, questionnaires, and collecting data regarding to CSR issues, awareness and attitudes among the corporate, the public and business stakeholders in developing nations, particularly with regard to Longhua in Burma’ (Myanmar) furniture industry.

The paper aims at determining the relationship between profits making and sustainable development for K. K. A. in Myanmar. As a result, the perceptions of various stakeholders towards the CSR policies of K. K. A. are essential in the process of CSR research. In order to gather the thoughts and perceptions of its stakeholders in K.A.A, the interview will be adopted to observe the facts and collected primary data. In order to further understand the perceptions and practice of corporations toward the CSR initiatives, the questionnaires will be handed out online. As the concept of CSR and the conditions for adopting the CSR initiatives in the developing countries could lay a foundation for this research, the theoretical approach is used to collect primary data. 

3.3 Research Design

There are mainly two methods to research, the qualitative approach and quantitative research, which are also the approaches applied in this paper. The quantitative approach is involved with the collection of data in quantitative form. The qualitative approach is mainly about the subject assessment of attitudes, opinions and behavior (Creswell, 2003). 

3.3.1 Quantitative Research Method

Quantitative research aims to measure “how much” or “how often”, and it is most used in the scientific fields (Nau, 1995).  The quantitative data attempts to find the origins, justifications and progress of knowledge (Amaratunga et al, 2002).

The paper adopted quantitative research approach to satisfy the research objectives (Denzin & Lincoln, 2005). The quantitative research approach was used in literature review, distinguishing some related concepts for the research. In order to understand the concept of CSR and sustainable development, quantitative research is truly essential to explore the importance of CSR in business practices

The main secondary information for quantitative research approach involved academic work sources, including literature books, from commercial journal sources that are available in newspaper articles, magazine articles; from electronic sources on the internet. It focused on the CSR theories and articles from different authors that concerned with CSR process and its increasing importance in business operation activities. The author in the research focused on the CSR concepts, significant and importance with a series of related theories, such as Carroll’s (1991) CSR Pyramid theory, Heskett (1994) service chain model and Porter Kramer (2002) model, in order to illustrate the CSR process of value creating and image building for corporate in developing countries.

3.3.2 Qualitative Research Method

Qualitative research studies the real-life situation which also provides a real-life scenario. It is both rich and holistic, and with flexible data collection methods and times (Campbell, 2004). It is the best strategy for discovery, exploring new areas and developing hypotheses tool (Amaratunga et al, 2002). However, it is usually difficult to analyze data with big volume and complexity and the details of classification record. The qualitative research neglects the social and cultural construction of the variables studied (Amaratunga et al, 2002). The information collected from the qualitative research method is the primary information, which can be more reflexive in this research paper.

The most common qualitative techniques are in depth interviews and focus group (Biazzo, 2002). Other techniques, such as observation, and active research are also included in the qualitative research.

In this paper, interviews are conducted to main stakeholders of K. K. A, including the customers, employees, suppliers and stakeholders are adopted to collect primary information. While doing the interview for the various stakeholders of K.A.A, the observation technique is combined with the interview to analyze the physical response of the responders (Fontana & Frey, 2003). In addition, questionnaires are handed out to explore the CSR perceptions and thoughts of various stakeholders. 

3.4 Data Collection Tools

The data collection tools used to collect the primary data in this research paper are mainly interviews and observations combined with online surveys and questionnaires.

3.4.1 Interview

The technique of interview is the major research method used in this paper. Interview is a face-to-face conversation with the respondent. The interviewer can not only record the statements of the interviewee but he can also observe the body language, expressions and other reactions to the questions as well, which enables the interviewer to make conclusions easily (Hannabuss, 1996). While the major problem in an interview is that the respondent may deliberately hides information otherwise it is an in depth source of information. Also, with structured interviews there is little room for variation and open- ended questions are not common (Fontana & Frey, 2003).

The key qualitative research approaches of primarily data collection used in the research primarily involved the interviews of main stakeholders of K. K. A. It aims at understanding the stakeholders’ perception toward the CSR policies taken by the corporation. The data collected from interviews were conducted by personal interview, email and telephone. For it is impossible to reach all the stakeholders by personal interview, telephone and email interviews are more convenient to conduct interviews as the main tools of data collection. The questions of interview focused on how and what did K. K. A. do in the aspects of value creation, social development, environmental protection as well as philanthropic activities. 

3.4.2 Questionnaire survey

Questionnaire is the most commonly used tool in survey. Questionnaires are more objective as they are gathered by a standardized way; some potential information can be collected from a large group population in a relative short time. However, there are some limitations of questionnaires (Lawson, 1997).  It may cost much time not only to design questionnaire but also to analyze and apply. And during the survey, respondents may answer the questionnaire superficially, especially when the questionnaire is too long to complete. Some key customers or top managers may not willing to answer questionnaires and give their own opinions, thus the analyzed results may not so valid(Lawson, 1997).

The research divided the responders of questionnaire into suppliers, employees and shareholders, which focused on different stakeholders of different fields with different positions. The questions of the interview and questionnaire will be focused on investigating the economic, social, and environmental performance and practices of K. K. A corporation during the producing and marketing activities. The study aims at understanding the importance and necessity of CSR to the corporation in developing countries. 

3.4.3 Observation

Observations can be done in natural settings as well as in artificially created environment. During the process of observation, the people being observed can be told or not that they are being observed. The researchers have to listen or watch people’s behavior in a way that allows for some type of investigative interpretation (Ghauri & Gronhaug, 2001). Compared with other techniques, observation is with its own advantages and limitations. The researchers of observations have first-hand experience with their participants, and during observation, usual aspects can be noticed. Observation is useful in exploring topics that are uncomfortable for participants and researchers and the record information are as it is revealed (Cresswell, 2003).

The observation could also be another research technique employed. In the process of the interview, we could combine the observation to get more authentic data. The observation could also be carried out in observing the business practice of the furniture industry. 

3.5 Data Analysis Tools

To begin with, the interview results should be analyzed according to the various answers of different stakeholders. In addition, this research paper will use survey monkey software to analyze and evaluate the data of questionnaire, which could help distinguish diverse perceptions towards CSR policies and performance. The analysis tools can help to explore the importance and impact of CSR practices to the corporate in developing countries. Through the interviews and surveys, the combined tools will present the research result and critically assess the CSR performance of the corporations to study the significance of CSR to the corporate in developing countries.

3.6 Research site

The research will be focused on corporate in developing nations, particularly with regard to Longhua in Burma’ (Myanmar) furniture industry. The corporation K.A.A will be used to analyze the CSR performance. As a result, the research will be carried out around Longhua, a furniture industry in Burma, Myanmar in order to facilitate the research. As far as the interview is concerned, the research means to conduct interview to various stakeholders of K.A.A, including the customers, the suppliers, the shareholders as well as the corporate employees. Because most of them are living around the area of Burma, the research site will be located around Burma to get connected will the respondents. As far as the questionnaires are concerned, the questionnaires are designed to be handed out to the employees of various corporations. Because the internet seems to be a fast and economic way of doing the surveys, the questionnaires will be handed out electronically. 

3.7 Sampling method, unit & size 

Actually, the two sampling methods frequently used are purposive sampling as well as non-probability sampling. The semi-structured focused interview uses purposive sampling. Saunders et al, found that purposive sampling “enables you to use your judgment to select cases that will best enable you to answer your research questions and meet your objective” (2000, pp. 175). Non-probability sampling is most commonly used in exploratory research (Malhortra, 1996).

Due to the limited number of companies that fit the profile being studied, the sampling frame is relatively small. On one respect, sampling for interviews, the interviews were conducted mostly on the telephone and email for all the respondents were from Myanmar. The stakeholders that identified are employees, suppliers and shareholders. For the population for the research are stakeholders of K. K. A, the target population should be identified precisely to interview. The reason of selecting these stakeholders is that these stakeholders are responsible for creating value for the corporate and maintaining a competitive edge in the market (Davis, 1973). On the other respect, sampling for questionnaires survey, a sample of 50 people was selected as it is really very hard to actually get the questionnaires filled. A sample of 50 was a practical and achievable target. The sample population was among those who use K.K.A. products in their daily life. The method of data collection was based on the Carroll’s CSR pyramid theory (Carroll, 1991).

3.8 Limitations

The research of this paper, A Study of CSR Practices for Furniture Industry in Myanmar also has some limitations. During the process of doing the CSR research, some research limitations and problems can be identified. First of all, the public and corporate in developing countries like Myanmar did not fully understand or recognize the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility and regard it as a new phenomenon (Martin, R., 2002). The perception of CSR in developing countries like Myanmar is highly concerned with the conception of corporate financial responsibility and social charities (Johnson, 1971). Secondly, the explosive approaches of the literature also have a limitation that the means of the telephone interview and questionnaire survey are too monotonous, which cannot get to a large extension of research respondents. Further interview, survey and analysis are needed in this paper.

4. Research Analysis and Results 

4.1 Research Result

4.1.1 Interview Result

According to the interview conducted to various stakeholders of K.A.A, some results can be concluded.

Most of the consumers like to purchase high-quality and low-cost products. However, when the issue of CSR is taken into consideration, only one third of the respondents are aware of the issue and one fourth of the respondents take the corporate image into consideration when they are buying products.

As the suppliers also play an important part in the research of CSR, the interview analysis of the suppliers are also very essential in concluding the research results. Based on their answers, only about one half of the suppliers think they are responsible for the society as well as the environment. When they supply materials to the corporate, only about one third of the respondents say that they pay attention to the materials they supply to the corporate.

As for the interviews to those employees, the answers also implicate something. Most of the respondents of K.A.A Corporation know the initiatives of the CSR. However, their understanding of the CSR is still at an early stage. One half of the respondents think that the economic responsibility of providing the quality service as well as good products is the responsibilities. The other half thinks that the social responsibility and the environmental responsibility are also very important.

The interview for the shareholders also illustrates something of the CSR performance. Most of the respondents think that they understand the CSR practice in the company and they support the CSR initiatives. However, their support of CSR is mainly linked to profit making of the corporation.

4.1.2 Questionnaire Result

In the end, 52 samples of the questionnaires are handed out online. However, some employee skipped the survey questions and some responses only have 50 or 51 answers were collected. According to the questionnaires handed out to the employees electronically, the results of the questionnaires are collective in the following graphs and tables.

The questions of the survey mainly focus on three aspects of the corporate social responsibility, economic, ethnic as well as social.

According to the answers of the respondents from the K.A.A, the economic aspect seems to be taken seriously by most of the corporations. According to the questionnaire responses, most of the employees believe that the economic aspect is well addressed by the corporation, including the quality of the products, the variety of the products and the prices of the products. Take the quality of the products of the corporation as an example, about 92.16 percent of the employees believe that the corporation is trying to enhance the quality of their products, as is illustrated in the table 1 in appendix 5.  

As for the ethnic aspect of the corporate social responsibility, it is not as well recognized by the corporations comparing to the economic perspective. According to the responses from the employees, some of the advertisements of the corporation are not totally true to life. What is worse, many employees believe that the corporation did not take serious measures to support the charities. According to the table 6 in appendix 5, more than 30 percent of the respondents believe that the corporation failed to take measures with regard to the charity activities. 

Finally, the environmental aspect of the corporate social responsibility practices seems to be undervalued by the corporations according to the responses. More than half of the respondents think the material of the products is not environmental, the production process even brings about pollutions to the environment and there is limited measures taken by the corporation to protect the environment. According to the figures collected from Q10 refers to table 10 in appendix 5, 64.71 percent of the employees believe that the corporation did not take enough measures in order to minimize the degree of environment pollution.

4.2 Research Analysis

4.2.1 Interview Analysis

According to the data collected by the interview of the various stakeholders of the K.A.A, some results with regard to the CSR performance could be concluded

First, it should be noted that the CSR performance among all the stakeholders are low. Some of the stakeholders claim that they understand and support the CSR imitative in the corporation. However, their understanding of CSR is mainly linked to the economic performance of a corporation. In most developing countries, the first priority of CSR is the economic aspect because it is directly linked to the economic income. Thus, the stakeholders support the decision of the corporation to elevate the economic aspect of the corporation. However, they failed to understand the importance of the ethnic perspective and environmental perspective of the CSR in shaping the corporation’s image and contributing to the long-term development of the corporation.

Secondly, according to the answers of the customers, we could conclude that the CSR performance of the company linking to the economic responsibility shaped a lot about the company image. The customers believe that the corporation and business should provide them with the products with high quality and reasonable prices. In addition, some of the customers think that the social responsibility and the environmental responsibility are also quite important. They recognized that their buying behavior is also affecting the environment and society. As a result, they are more inclined to choose the companies and brands which have a good social image during their buying process. With the passage of time, the social and environmental responsibility will play an important role in shaping the image of a corporation and affecting the buying behavior of the companies.

Finally, the profit making of the company is affecting the sustainable development of the companies. The economic responsibility of the CSR initiatives carried out by some companies is not enough to satisfy some customers who are environmental conscious. With the increasing importance of environmental protection, the sole profit making behavior will affect the sustainable development of the company. In that aspect, the CSR initiatives in economic, social as well as environmental aspect will be more and more important in supporting the sustainable development.

4.2.2 Questionnaire Analysis

The questionnaires carried out to the employees of the corporation can show the CSR initiatives done by the corporation in the aspects of the economic, social and environmental aspects.

According to the above data, the economic aspect is highly focused by the corporation. Because the economic aspect is linked directly to the profit making, most of the corporations pay a lot of attention to produce a great range of products with high quality and low cost. However, the social aspect is not given enough attention. Although the corporations seem to obey the rules of the society, they do not pay much attention to support charities in order to shape the social image. The environmental aspect is clearly not highlighted. Most of the corporation did not care much about minimize the pollution of the production process.

However, as the sustainable and long-term development is becoming more and more important for the corporation, the single focus in the economic perspective is not enough to secure the customer base. The customers are beginning to pay more attention to the brands, especially those brands of the social and environmental value (Erin, 2004). The corporation should try to improve their production process, try to cut the emission of bad substance in order to preserve and protect the health of the potential customers (Brandt, 2006). In additions, on the basis of conforming to social norms, the corporations should also shoulder their social responsibility and contribute to the charities.  

5. Conclusion 

The concluding parts will be divided into two parts. The first part is about the theoretical findings based on the secondary information. The second part is based on the practical findings based on the questionnaires analysis and interview analysis.

 5.1 Theoretical Findings

CSR, an increasingly important concept in business practice, has many dimensions and definitions. It means that the corporations should behave ethically and contribute to economic development as well as improving the quality of life for the public and society. CSR means that the corporation is not only responsible for meeting the economic requirements of the customers but also responsible for meeting the needs of various stakeholders, including suppliers, customers, employees and the shareholders of a corporation. As a result, the business practice of corporations should incorporate the CSR initiatives into their process to generate profits, meeting social responsibilities as well as protecting the environment in order to create sustainable development.

While the issue of CSR is identified by various stakeholders, the understanding of CSR practices in developing countries is poor. Developing countries need to put a lot of focus on the issues of CSR development. Many crises in the developing countries are also responsible for emerging and effecting CSR initiatives. These crises include economic, social, environmental, political and industrial. In developing countries like Burma and India, poverty alleviation is a basic topic among the corporate to develop the CSR strategies, for they think poverty alleviation is the solution to the problems. Other challenges that have prompted and affected CSR initiatives include diseases and climate change. Besides, immediate and long-term effects of catastrophic events are more likely to elicit charities activities of CSR responses. Finally, political and social reforms play a key role in promoting CSR awareness.

In the recent years, through direct engagements, governments, NGO’s and corporate of developing countries have quickened the steps of adopting the CSR agenda of developed countries (UN, 2006). Furniture corporations like Longhua in Burma are working hard to improve the social and economic welfare of the corporate and the society. With a global perspective, Longhua has a vast willingness to execute CSR projects. They not only work towards the environment of the country but taking account the current needs of the society, focusing on the social and public infrastructure projects. As a result, the CSR helped shaping the image of the furniture company, creating a better brand for the corporation.

However, the CSR initiatives are not fully integrate into the business operations by the developing countries. As a result, the practical findings mainly focused on getting to know the perception of the CSR of various stakeholders.

5.2 Practical Findings

The practical findings are mainly based on the interview and the questionnaire results.

According to the data collected by the interview of the various stakeholders of the K.A.A, some results with regard to the CSR performance could be concluded. First, it should be noted that the CSR performance among all the stakeholders are low. Most of them linked the CSR to the profit creation as well as the supporting some charities. Despite that, the social charities helped shaped the image of the corporations among the customers. Finally, it should be noted that the sole profit generating behavior of a company is not enough to create the image of a company and supporting the sustainable development.

The questionnaires carried out to the employees of the corporation can show the CSR initiatives done by the corporation in the aspects of the economic, social and environmental aspects. The economic aspect is highly focused by the corporation. Because the economic aspect is linked directly to the profit making, most of the corporations pay a lot of attention to produce a great range of products with high quality and low cost. However, the social aspect is not given enough attention. Although the corporations seem to obey the rules of the society, they do not pay much attention to support charities in order to shape the social image. The environmental aspect is clearly not highlighted. Most of the corporation did not care much about minimize the pollution of the production process.

Based on the above findings, some suggestions can be made to the CSR practices of the developing countries. First of all, they should recognize the importance of CSR in creating the issue of a corporation and creating the added value. Secondly, the three aspects of CSR should be recognized by them, including the financial, social and environmental. Finally, they should understand that the environmental aspect should be incorporate into the business activities in order to create sustainable development. The endeavor in protecting the environment while fulfilling the social responsibilities will be favorable to the environment protection, ensuring the long-term growth while creating a green brand for the corporation. However, the ignorance of the environmental aspect will backfire and affecting the future growth of the corporation.

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Appendixes 

Appendix 1. Interview Questions of the stakeholders

--Interview of Consumers:

Q1: What kind of products do you like to purchase, high-quality products, low-cost products or environmentally-friendly products?

Q2: How do you perceive a corporate image, according to its social responsibility, ethic concern or others?

Q3: Does the corporate image affect your buying behavior?

Q4: Do you think you are responsible for the corporate behavior in the production process?

Q5: What can you do to help protect the environment and help the society during the buying process?

--Interview of Suppliers:

Q6: What kind of products or materials do you usually supply to a corporate?

Q7: What kind of corporate do you usually supply products or materials to

Q8: Does the corporate image affect your supplying decision?

Q9: Do you think you are responsible for the corporate image building and for the social concern in the supply?

Q10: How can you help the environment and the society in the supply?

--Interview of employees

Q11: What kind of company do you like to work in?

Q12: Does the image of a company affect your working decision and your momentum?

Q13: How do you think about shaping the image of a company by CRS initiatives?

Q14: What role do you think you can play in CSR initiatives?

--Interview of shareholders

Q15: How do you understand CSR in corporate practice?

Q16: Do you support CSR in the business activities of a corporate?

Q17: What activities do the corporate usually initiate in the aspect of CSR to strength the image?

Q14: Do you think CSR practice is a must for being the corporate citizen or for profit making?

Appendix 2: Interview Results of the Stakeholders

Respondent 1

Q1: What kind of products do you like to purchase, high-quality products, low-cost products or environmentally-friendly products?

A: I usually like to purchase products that are of high quality but quite cost-effective.

Q2: How do you perceive a corporate image, according to its social responsibility, ethic concern or others?

A:I will usually perceive the corporate image according to its brand.

Q3: Does the corporate image affect your buying behavior?

A: Sometimes, but it is usually the product that counts.

Q4: Do you think you are responsible for the corporate behavior in the production process?

A: I do not think so, the corporate has to be responsible for their behaviors themselves.

Q5: What can you do to help protect the environment and help the society during the buying process?

A: I think I can purchase less useless products to protect the environment. 

Respondent 2

Q6: What kind of products or materials do you usually supply to a corporate?

A: Mostly the cost-effective products and materials.

Q7: What kind of corporate do you usually supply products or materials to

A: The corporate with a big brand and high reputation.

Q8: Does the corporate image affect your supplying decision?

A: It depends; sometimes a better image will be more attractive.

Q9: Do you think you are responsible for the corporate image building and for the social concern in the supply?

A: Yes, I do think that the materials and the products should be more environmental.

Q10: How can you help the environment and the society in the supply?

A: Pick products that is environmental enough. 

Respondent 3

Q11: What kind of company do you like to work in?

A: I would like to work in a company with a good corporate culture and a good image.

Q12: Does the image of a company affect your working decision and your momentum?

A: Yes, if the company is corrupt, I would choose to quit.

Q13: How do you think about shaping the image of a company by CRS initiatives?

A: I think my corporation should pay more attention to the charities so as to shape its image.

Q14: What role do you think you can play in CSR initiatives?

A: I do not know, maybe I can tell the truth to the customers about our products. 

Respondent 4

Q15: How do you understand CSR in corporate practice?

A: The economic responsibility is important in securing the customers.

Q16: Do you support CSR in the business activities of a corporate?

A: Yes, the CSR initiative can help build the image.

Q17: What activities do the corporate usually initiate in the aspect of CSR to strength the image?

A: We focus on providing good quality products.

Q18: Do you think CSR practice is a must for being the corporate citizen or for profit making?

A: Profit making usually is the major concern, but we would fulfill our corporate responsibility

Appendix 3 Questionnaire survey

Questionnaire Survey:

Q1 Does your corporate ensure good quality of products?

A .yes B .no

Q2 Are the options of products and ordering are multiple?

A .yes B .no

Q3. Are the prices of its products reasonable?

A .yes B .no

Q4.Do the corporate conform to the ethic and moral codes?

A .yes B .no

Q5 Are advertisements claims of its products are true?

A .yes B .no

Q6 Do the corporate often takes measures or policies to support some charities activities

A .yes B .no

Q7 Is the material of its products environmental?

A .yes B .no

Q8 Does the production activities of the corporate bring any pollutions or environmental crisis

A .yes B .no

Q9 Does the corporate make some policies to protect the environment

A .yes B .no

Q10 Does the production of the corporate ensures maximum quality so as to minimal environmental degradation

A .yes B .no

Appendix 4 Questionnaire reasoning 

Questions

Reasoning

Do your corporate ensure good quality of products?

To know whether the corporate hold responsibility to the customers.

Are the options of products and ordering are multiple?

To know the variety of customer choice.

 

Are the prices of its products reasonable?

 

To know the cost-effectiveness of the product.

Do the corporate conform to the ethic and moral codes?

To identify the ethnic issue of the corporate.

Are advertisements claims of its products are true?

To know whether the corporate is social responsible.

Do the corporate often takes measures or policies to support some charities activities?

To know whether the corporate is trying to build image through CSR practice.

Is the material of its products environmental?

To know whether the corporate is social responsible.

Does the production activities of the corporate bring any pollutions or environmental crisis?

To know whether the corporate is environmental responsible.

Does the corporate make some policies to protect the environment?

To know whether the corporate is environmental responsible.

Does the production of the corporate ensures maximum quality so as to minimal environmental degradation?

To know whether the corporate is taking steps to be environmental responsible.

Appendix 5 Questionnaire Results

Table 1.

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Table 2

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Table 3.

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Table 4.

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Table 5.

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Table 6.

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Table 7.

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Table 8.

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Table 9.

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Table 10.

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